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In the following war, Darius was defeated at the Battle of Marathon and retreated. [9] Plutarch criticised Herodotus in his essay "On The Malignity of Herodotus", describing Herodotus as "Philobarbaros" (barbarian-lover) for not being pro-Greek enough, which suggests that Herodotus might actually have done a reasonable job of being even-handed. What effect did the Persian Wars have on Greece? The members were given a choice of either supplying armed forces or paying a tax to the joint treasury; most states chose the tax. Herodotus does not formulate an abstract name for the union but simply calls them "οἱ Ἕλληνες" (the Greeks) and "the Greeks who had sworn alliance" (Godley translation) or "the Greeks who had banded themselves together" (Rawlinson translation). If the terms were observed by the king and his generals, then the Athenians were not to send troops to lands ruled by Persia. [202] Fine argues that Callisthenes's denial that a treaty was made after the Eurymedon does not preclude a peace being made at another point. [182] Control of both Sestos and Byzantium gave the allies command of the straits between Europe and Asia (over which the Persians had crossed), and allowed them access to the merchant trade of the Black Sea. [207] This disastrous conflict, which dragged on for 27 years, would eventually result in the utter destruction of Athenian power, the dismemberment of the Athenian empire, and the establishment of a Spartan hegemony over Greece. Each province were ruled by a governor (satrap), who collected taxes, judges legal cases, managed the police, and recruited soldiers for the Persian army. Victory over the allied Greek states at the famous Battle of Thermopylae allowed the Persians to torch an evacuated Athens and overrun most of Greece. A coalition of 39 countries launched a campaign to roll back the invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Hussein. i know themistocles was involved in the persian war, but did he also play a role in the pelopanesian war? This meant that society was contemporary overall, with many cities becoming independent states. There was also perhaps a feeling that securing long-term security for the Asian Greeks would prove impossible. [20] In his biographies, he draws directly from many ancient histories that have not survived, and thus often preserves details of the period that are omitted in Herodotus and Thucydides's accounts. [85] The fleet sailed next to Naxos, to punish the Naxians for their resistance to the failed expedition the Persians had mounted there a decade earlier. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. In 480 BCE, the Persians once again sent out ambassadors to try to convince the Greeks to submit and, once again, many city-states did so. How did the geography of Mesopotamia and Egypt shape their cultures? The Greeks had won the war. [133] However, once there, they were warned by Alexander I of Macedon that the vale could be bypassed and that the army of Xerxes was overwhelmingly large, thus the Greeks retreated. [179] Artayctes was crucified at the request of the people of Elaeus, a town which Artayctes had plundered while governor of the Chersonesos. Here are some of the ways ancient Greeks changed the world. The order is important. Relevance. [73] This double defeat effectively ended the revolt, and the Carians surrendered to the Persians as a result. The Persians most likely used their bows to wear down the enemy, then closed in to deliver the final blow with spears and swords. Sparta had such huge numbers of slaves that they created a whole other social class and culture similar to medieval serfs, but with more cruelty. Answer Save. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? 220 lessons The most common naval tactics during the period were ramming (Greek triremes were equipped with a cast-bronze ram at the bows), or boarding by ship-borne marines. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Furthermore, Athens had already demonstrated their superiority at sea at the Eurymedon and Salamis-in-Cyprus, so any legal limitations for the Persian fleet were nothing more than "de jure" recognition of military realities. [130] Little is known about the internal workings of the congress or the discussions during its meetings. After initial Persian victories, the Persians were eventually defeated, both at sea and on land. [184], The aftermath of the siege was to prove troublesome for Pausanias. The route to southern Greece (Boeotia, Attica and the Peloponnesus) would require the army of Xerxes to travel through the narrow pass of Thermopylae. "[7], Some later ancient historians, starting with Thucydides, criticized Herodotus and his methods. 's' : ''}}. [147] If Xerxes could destroy the Allied navy, he would be in a strong position to force an Allied surrender;[148] conversely by avoiding destruction, or as Themistocles hoped, by destroying the Persian fleet, the Allies could prevent conquest from being completed. [51] The cavalry probably fought as lightly armed missile cavalry.[47][52]. The revolt continued, with the two sides effectively stalemated throughout 497–495 BC. [126], In 481 BC, Xerxes sent ambassadors to city states throughout Greece, asking for food, land, and water as tokens of their submission to Persia. In 2009, Greece’s budget deficit exceeded 15% of its gross domestic product. 3 Answers. [178] The party of Oeobazus was captured by a Thracian tribe, and Oeobazus was sacrificed to the god Plistorus. However, while besieging Kition, Cimon died, and the Athenian force decided to withdraw, winning another double victory at the Battle of Salamis-in-Cyprus in order to extricate themselves. recent questions recent answers. The Greek fleet then sailed to Byzantium, which they besieged and eventually captured. When the wax was removed, a message was found scratched on the wooden backing, warning the Spartans of Xerxes's plans. The Persian Empire was the largest and most powerful empire in the world at the time of the Persian Wars. The armies from the Eastern satrapies were gathered in Kritala, Cappadocia and were led by Xerxes to Sardis where they passed the winter. Sparta and Athens had a leading role in the congress but the interests of all the states influenced defensive strategy. In 498 BC, supported by troops from Athens and Eretria, the Ionians marched on, captured, and burnt Sardis. Greece Crisis Explained . In 1939, Greek archaeologist Spyridon Marinatos found the remains of numerous Persian arrowheads at the Kolonos Hill on the field of Thermopylae, which is now generally identified as the site of the defender's last stand. [127] States that were opposed to Persia thus began to coalesce around these two city states. The Persian prince Cyrus led a rebellion against the last Median king Astyages in 553 BC. An error occurred trying to load this video. Create an account to start this course today. Since the Allied fleet was badly damaged, and since it no longer needed to defend the flank of Thermopylae, the Allies retreated from Artemisium to the island of Salamis. Quiz & Worksheet - The Greece-Persian Wars, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Ancient Greek Tyrant: Definition & Overview, Tyrants of Ancient Greece: Contributions, Impact & Examples, The Delian League of Ancient Greece: Definition & Overview, Peloponnesian War: Epidamnus, Corcyra & Potidaea, The Sicilian Expedition: Facts & Significance, HSC Ancient History: Exam Prep & Syllabus, Biological and Biomedical The Persian War ran 499-449 BCE - it had several phases - Ionian Revolt, Persian punitive expedition against Eretria and Athens, Persian invasion of mainland Greece, Greek counter-offensive. Persian Wars: A series of conflicts, from 499-449 BCE, between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and city-states of the Hellenic world. The Greeks are looked upon as the bastion of freedom, yet the majority of Greek cities practiced slavery of some sort. [149] The Allied fleet thus remained off the coast of Salamis into September, despite the imminent arrival of the Persians. Monumental advances in math, science, philosophy, government, literature, and art have made the Ancient Greeks the envy of world’s past and present. Plutarch suggests that in the aftermath of the victory at the Eurymedon, Artaxerxes had agreed to a peace treaty with the Greeks, even naming Callias as the Athenian ambassador involved. [196], After the Battle of Salamis-in-Cyprus, Thucydides makes no further mention of conflict with the Persians, saying that the Greeks simply returned home. Stalemate ensued for five days, before the Persians decided to continue onward to Athens, and began to load their troops back onto the ships. [164] After this the Persian force dissolved in rout; 40,000 troops managed to escape via the road to Thessaly,[165] but the rest fled to the Persian camp where they were trapped and slaughtered by the Greeks, finalising the Greek victory. After Darius died, his son Xerxes I restarted the preparations for a second invasion of Greece, which finally began in 480 BC. [138], When the Persians arrived at Thermopylae in mid-August, they initially waited for three days for the Allies to disperse. The Persian Wars refers to the conflict between Greece and Persia in the 5th century BCE which involved two invasions by the latter in 490 and 480 BCE. In any case, it is impossible to determine with absolute certainty the legitimacy of Ephialtes' involvement in the battle. Many people look at the Persians as some evil empire that wanted to enslave the Greeks. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. These works are not considered reliable (especially Ctesias), and are not particularly useful for reconstructing the history of this period. Next in king Darius’ sights were Athens and the rest of Greece. Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, Properties & Trends in The Periodic Table, Solutions, Solubility & Colligative Properties, Electrochemistry, Redox Reactions & The Activity Series, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning. This period, sometimes referred to as the pentekontaetia (πεντηκονταετία, the Fifty Years) by ancient writers, was a period of relative peace and prosperity within Greece. The cities of Ionia were also liberated from Persian control. [174] The Peloponnesians sailed home, but the Athenians remained to attack the Chersonesos, still held by the Persians. The ancient Greeks had a strong cultural influence on the Roman Empire, though the Romans did manage to take this influence and make it into something all their own. In order to punish Greece for aiding the rebellious cities of Anatolia. Some historical sources suggest the end of hostilities was marked by a peace treaty between Athens and Persia, the Peace of Callias. This invasion in particular, however, probably saw one of the most distinguished battles in … What was the last battle of the Persian War? 23 chapters | When Cyrus conquered the Lydians, he also conquered the Ionian cities. [187] In the aftermath of Mycale, the Spartan king Leotychides had proposed transplanting all the Greeks from Asia Minor to Europe as the only method of permanently freeing them from Persian dominion. [185], Pausanias returned to Byzantium as a private citizen in 477 BC, and took command of the city until he was expelled by the Athenians. The Parthenon is a resplendent marble temple built between 447 and 432 B.C. [5] In 490 BC a second force was sent to Greece, this time across the Aegean Sea, under the command of Datis and Artaphernes. courses that prepare you to earn The Greek victory paved the way for the Athenian “Golden Age”. [169] Whilst many modern historians doubt that Mycale took place on the same day as Plataea, the battle may well only have occurred once the Allies received news of the events unfolding in Greece. Athens, with Megara and Plataea, sent emissaries to Sparta demanding assistance, and threatening to accept the Persian terms if they were not aided. [96] Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt, and very quickly resumed the preparations for the invasion of Greece. [18], More detail for the whole period is provided by Plutarch, in his biographies of Themistocles, Aristides and especially Cimon. [77], The first campaign, in 492 BC, was led by Darius's son-in-law Mardonius,[78] who re-subjugated Thrace, which had nominally been part of the Persian empire since 513 BC. [117] The Athenians were aware throughout this period that the Persian interest in Greece had not ended,[97] and Themistocles's naval policies may be seen in the light of the potential threat from Persia. [34] At this time, the Lydians were also in conflict with the Median Empire, and the Milesians sent an army to aid the Lydians in this conflict. The customary elite young men in the Hippeis were replaced by veterans who already had children. [135] However, the Peloponnesian cities made fall-back plans to defend the Isthmus of Corinth should it come to it, while the women and children of Athens were evacuated to the Peloponnesian city of Troezen. [187] With the Spartan withdrawal after Byzantium, the leadership of the Athenians became explicit. The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. There were two mainland invasions of Greece, in 490 (under King Darius) and 480–479 BCE (under King Xerxes). Asia Minor had been brought back into the Persian fold, but Darius had vowed to punish Athens and Eretria for their support for the revolt. Greek City-States: We often talk about Ancient Greece like it was one nation, but there was no unified Greece at this time. Thousands of years ago, the geography of ancient Greece was divided into three regions - the coastline, the lowlands, and the mountains. [62][63] The mission was a debacle,[64] and sensing his imminent removal as tyrant, Aristagoras chose to incite the whole of Ionia into rebellion against the Persian king Darius the Great. The upshot was that the wars so weakened the Greeks that they became a target for Macedonia, which took over the Greek world, and used the combined power to take over the Persian Empire. Most modern scholars reject as unrealistic the figures of 2.5 million given by Herodotus and other ancient sources because the victors likely miscalculated or exaggerated. [134] At this point, a second strategy was suggested by Themistocles to the allies. At the Battle of Lade, the Ionians suffered a decisive defeat, and the rebellion collapsed, with the final members being stamped out the following year. The Battle of Marathon was a watershed in the Greco-Persian wars, showing the Greeks that the Persians could be beaten; the eventual Greek triumph in these wars can be seen to begin at Marathon. [171] The immediate result of the victory at Mycale was a second revolt amongst the Greek cities of Asia Minor. However, since the 19th century, his reputation has been dramatically rehabilitated by archaeological finds that have repeatedly confirmed his version of events. The Athenian Acropolis was destroyed by the Persians, but the Athenian response was to build the beautiful … The West and the East merged their food, culture and ethics for the first time. The war saw the deployment of around 45,000 British forces, the largest since the Second World War. [192] The Persians then counterattacked, and the Athenian force was itself besieged for 18 months, before being wiped out. [141], Simultaneous with the battle at Thermopylae, an Allied naval force of 271 triremes defended the Straits of Artemisium against the Persians, thus protecting the flank of the forces at Thermopylae. [125] However, many historians believe that this chapter was inserted into the text by a later author, possibly to fill a gap between the end of book 7 and the start of book 8. Get access risk-free for 30 days, imaginable degree, area of Greek influence on Roman culture is clear in areas such as religion, art and architecture, literature and philosophy. [188] In reality, this goal was divided into three main efforts—to prepare for future invasion, to seek revenge against Persia, and to organize a means of dividing spoils of war. Get answers by asking now. Finally, in 478 B.C, the Persian War ended, and the Greeks were free from Persian rule. [209], Repeatedly defeated in battle by the Greeks, and plagued by internal rebellions that hindered their ability to fight the Greeks, after 449 BC, Artaxerxes I and his successors instead adopted a policy of divide-and-rule. When the envoys came to Sardis and spoke as they had been bidden, Artaphrenes son of Hystaspes, viceroy of Sardis, asked them, "What men are you, and where dwell you, who desire alliance with the Persians?" Moreover, seeing that the political situation in Greece posed a continued threat to the stability of his Empire, he decided to embark on the conquest of all Greece. Key Terms. [152] Seizing the opportunity, the Allied fleet attacked, and scored a decisive victory, sinking or capturing at least 200 Persian ships, therefore ensuring the safety of the Peloponnessus. [216], "Persian Wars" redirects here. How did the Persian Wars negatively affect Greece? Xerxes decided that the Hellespont would be bridged to allow his army to cross to Europe, and that a canal should be dug across the isthmus of Mount Athos (a Persian fleet had been destroyed in 492 BC while rounding this coastline). These works generally claim that the Persians could have launched no more than around 600 warships into the Aegean. From 490 to 479 BCE, the Persian Empire and the Greeks faced off in two wars that decided the history of Greece and had a massive impact on the development of Western civilization. [12], The military history of Greece between the end of the second Persian invasion of Greece and the Peloponnesian War (479–431 BC) is not well supported by surviving ancient sources. King Xerxes had brought his huge army and navy… [185] The Spartans, hearing of his behaviour, recalled Pausanias and tried him on charges of collaborating with the enemy. A Greek fleet was sent to Cyprus in 451 BC, but achieved little, and, when it withdrew, the Greco-Persian Wars drew to a quiet end. [122], The Spartan king Demaratus had been stripped of his kingship in 491 BC, and replaced with his cousin Leotychides. c) Sicily. Greek armies placed the emphasis on heavier infantry, while Persian armies favoured lighter troop types. By far the most important source is the fifth-century Greek historian Herodotus. Mardonius now repeated his offer of peace to the Athenian refugees on Salamis. [26] These cities were Miletus, Myus and Priene in Caria; Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedos, Teos, Clazomenae, Phocaea and Erythrae in Lydia; and the islands of Samos and Chios. The style of warfare between the Greek city-states, which dates back until at least 650 BC (as dated by the 'Chigi vase'), was based around the hoplite phalanx supported by missile troops. [32][33], The cities of Ionia remained independent until they were conquered by the Lydians of western Asia Minor. [26][27] Modern historians generally accept this migration as historic (but separate from the later colonization of the Mediterranean by the Greeks). [190] At the Battle of the Eurymedon in Pamphylia, the Athenians and allied fleet achieved a stunning double victory, destroying a Persian fleet and then landing the ships' marines to attack and rout the Persian army. E. The name Iran derlves trom the word "Asyran," and durlng the first half of the first millennium, the Iranian-speaking people moved gradually Into the area of the Zagros Mountains, the largest groups known as the Medes and Persians. [47][48], The Persian military consisted of a diverse group of men drawn across the various nations of the empire. [208] However, not just Athens suffered—the conflict would significantly weaken the whole of Greece. The Persian Wars are traditionally dated 492–449/448 BCE. Answer this question. [206] However, the growing enmity between Sparta and Athens would lead, just 14 years later, into the outbreak of the Second Peloponnesian War. It’s as simple as that. Thermopylae in year 480 BCE was a major part in the Greek victory of the Graeco-persian wars and for the battle of Greece as an independent nation leading to the Greek golden age and Hellenism forever changing the western world and its culture. In reality, the league also granted increased power and prestige to Athens. It caused greece to come together in order to fight an outside force. What were the Persian Wars? Nevertheless, the Athenians preferred to remain democratic despite the danger from Persia, and the ambassadors were disavowed and censured upon their return to Athens.[60]. The Delian League continued to campaign against Persia for the next three decades, beginning with the expulsion of the remaining Persian garrisons from Europe. With the Persians' naval superiority removed, Xerxes feared that the Allies might sail to the Hellespont and destroy the pontoon bridges. [142] Here the Allied fleet held off the Persians for three days; however, on the third evening the Allies received news of the fate of Leonidas and the Allied troops at Thermopylae. [101] Thebes, though not explicitly 'Medising', was suspected of being willing to aid the Persians once the invasion force arrived. [56], The Persian naval forces were primarily provided by the seafaring people of the empire: Phoenicians, Egyptians, Cilicians and Cypriots. The Persian king Darius first attacked Greece in 490 BC, but was defeated at the Battle of Marathon by a mainly Athenian force. [95] Darius died while preparing to march on Egypt, and the throne of Persia passed to his son Xerxes I. The Athenians, worried that Athens would be conquered, set fire to their own city while civilians were evacuated. Made aware by scouts that they were being outflanked, Leonidas dismissed most of the Allied army, remaining to guard the rear with perhaps 2,000 men. [44][62] In 499 BC the then tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras, launched a joint expedition with the Persian satrap Artaphernes to conquer Naxos, in an attempt to bolster his position in Miletus (both financially and in terms of prestige). [153], According to Herodotus, after the loss of the battle Xerxes attempted to build a causeway across the channel to attack the Athenian evacuees on Salamis, but this project was soon abandoned. However, Xerxes' ambassadors deliberately avoided Athens and Sparta, hoping thereby that those states would not learn of the Persians' plans. Minor sources for the period include the works of Pompeius Trogus (epitomized by Justinus), Cornelius Nepos and Ctesias of Cnidus (epitomized by Photius), which are not in their original textual form. [136], Xerxes's estimated time of arrival at Thermopylae coincided with both the Olympic Games and the festival of Carneia. Ancient Greece was one of the first important civilizations in Europe. The Classical era, during the 5th and 6th-century BC, saw the country reach its apogee and this particular period has had a tremendous influence on Western culture. [199] This embassy included some Argive representatives and can probably be therefore dated to c. 461 BC (after an alliance was agreed between Athens and Argos). [98] However, the campaign was delayed by one year because of another revolt in Egypt and Babylonia. The end of the Persian Wars led to the rise of Athens as the leader of the Delian League. [137] The Allies proceeded to occupy the pass, rebuilt the wall the Phocians had built at the narrowest point of the pass, and waited for Xerxes's arrival. On the final day of the battle, the remaining Allies sallied forth from the wall to meet the Persians in the wider part of the pass to slaughter as many Persians as they could, but eventually they were all killed or captured. We simply do not have any accounts that tell the Persian side of the story. Because Greece was mountainous and did not have a great deal of land available for farming, many city-states sponsored the creation of colonies, new cities outside of the Greek mainland, populated by Greeks, which would often be allied to one of the major city-states. [49][54] The heavy armour usually included a breastplate or a linothorax, greaves, a helmet, and a large round, concave shield (the aspis or hoplon). Their role was to protect the back ranks of the formation. [76], After having reconquered Ionia, the Persians began to plan their next moves of extinguishing the threat to their empire from Greece; and punishing Athens and Eretria. The Balkan allies Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria quarreled over the partitioning of their conquests, leading to another war in 1913. Achaemenid Empire of Persia [170], Mycale was, in many ways, the beginning of a new phase in the conflict, in which the Greeks would go on the offensive against the Persians. The violent actions of Spartan leader Pausanias at the siege of Byzantium, for instance, alienated many of the Greek states from Spar… The Persian Wars (490-479BCE) were fought between the Greek city-states (including both Athens and Sparta together) and the Persians of Asia Minor. Despite this, the memory of the wars had a grasp on the minds of the Greek people and, following the unification of the Greeks by Alexander the Great, the Greco-Persian Wars were used as part of the justification for Alexander's conquest of Persia. The wars against Carthage changed Rome. Any Greek expedition both feats of exceptional ambition that would have been the subject of endless dispute Miller. 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Reasons Persia wanted to enslave the Greeks, especially for the Persian invasion of Greece, Darius 93 they... Follow-Up invasion of Greece with one of the Delian League, initially formed to Persia. Help you succeed up Ionia 19th century, his son Xerxes I Athenians, worried that Athens would be,... And left the battle of Salamis into September, despite the imminent arrival of 5th! 129 ] from now on, captured, and its population was enslaved to pursue the out! Were enslaved LETTER of RECOGNITION & REWARD I CLAIM all of these were victories for the conquest passed to mountains...

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Sarah Michelle Prinze (born April 14, 1977), known professionally by her birth name of Sarah Michelle Gellar, is an American film and television actress. She became widely known for her role as Buffy Summers on the WB/UPN television series ’Buffy the Vampire Slayer’. Gellar has also hosted Saturday Night Live a total of three times (1998, 1999, and 2002), appearing in a number of comedy sketches. Gellar built on her television fame with a motion picture career, and had intermittent commercial success. After roles in the popular thrillers I Know What You Did Last Summer and Scream 2 (both 1997), she starred in the 1999 film Cruel Intentions, alongside Ryan Phillipe, Reese Witherspoon and Selma Blair, whose kiss with Gellar won the two the “Best Kiss” award at the 2000 MTV Movie Awards. She resides in Los Angeles, California, with her husband, Freddie Prinze Jr. They have been married since 2002, and have two children.



TITLE: Cruel Intentions | ROLE: Kathryn Merteuil
FORMAT: Film | GENRE: Drama, Romance | YEAR: 1999
SYNOPSIS: Two vicious step-siblings of an elite Manhattan prep school make a wager: to deflower the new headmaster’s daughter before the start of term.




Amber Reynolds wakes up in a hospital, unable to move, speak or open her eyes. She can hear everyone around her, but they don’t know she can.




Plot unknown.




Animated reboot of the classic Masters of the Universe franchise focusing on unresolved stories of the iconic characters, picking up where they left off decades ago.



In October 2015, Gellar, along with entrepreneurs Galit Laibow and Greg Fleishman, co-founded Foodstirs, a startup food crafting brand selling via e-commerce and retail easy to make organic baking mixes and kits for families. By the beginning of 2017, the brand’s products were available in about 400 stores; by the end of the year a surge of interest from retailers increased its distribution to 8,000 stores. In 2018, Foodstirs entered into a deal with Starbucks to carry its mug cake mixes across 8,000 of its stores.

Gellar released a cook book titled Stirring up Fun with Food on April 18, 2017. The book was co-authored by Gia Russo, and features numerous food crafting ideas.



“I have good friends, gay couples, who’ve been together for 18 years. It drives me crazy that in the eyes of the law, their love isn’t acknowledged when I have girlfriends who have married four times by the age of 25.”

On Gay Marriage



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